Glaucoma Symptoms, Causes, Types & Treatment

Glaucoma Symptoms, Causes, Types & Treatment

The optic nerve is harmed by the dangerous eye condition glaucoma, which is linked to elevated intraocular pressure. In a healthy eye, aqueous humor, a transparent fluid, is continuously generated. The fluid that is created in the eye equals the fluid that flows out of the eye. Ocular hypertension develops as a result of increased eye pressure that results from ineffective tear drainage. IOP is a key element in the pathogenesis of glaucoma because high IOP harms the visual nerve.

Any age can experience it, however those over the age of 60 are more likely to do so. You might not notice a change in vision until the disease is advanced because many types of glaucoma don’t have any warning signals.

There are various forms of glaucoma:


The most prevalent kind of glaucoma is open-angle. The reason is unknow, but it results in a slight and gradual rise in pressure. If open-angle glaucoma runs in your family, your risk is increased.

A barrier that prevents fluid from leaving the eye results in acute angle-closure glaucoma. This kind creates a sudden, significant increase in eye pressure.

Patients with normal ocular pressure can develop normal-tension glaucoma, a kind of open-angle glaucoma.

When another medical disease, an eye injury, or medications raise eye pressure, secondary glaucomas result. Neovascular, pigmentary, exfoliational, and uveitic glaucoma all fall under this category.


One in every 10,000 infants born in the United States has congenital glaucoma, often known as childhood glaucoma. Their eyes have a condition from birth that prevents proper drainage of fluid. Congenital glaucoma in children manifests as clouded eyes, excessive tears, light sensitivity, and possibly larger-than-average eyes.


Aqueous humor, a substance ordinarily produced by the eyes, fills the front of the eye. Following that, it exits the eye through drainage pores in the iris and cornea. The intraocular pressure (IOP) of the eye rises as a result of partial or complete blockage of these vessels. The optic nerve may become damaged as the IOP rises. The patient may start losing their eye sight as the damage to the optic nerve worsens. Some of the following causes may be involved, albeit the precise reason of the elevated IOP is not always know:

Your eye’s discharge may be obstructed or limited.

Medicines like corticosteroids

abnormally high blood pressure

inadequate or reduced blood supply to the optic nerve

dilation eye drops.

Symptoms of glaucoma

The fluid buildup in the eye of glaucoma patients causes damage to the optic nerve. Most people acquire glaucoma in both eyes, even though it may initially affect one eye more severely. Within five to ten years, there is a 40% to 80% risk that someone with glaucoma in one eye would also acquire the same type of glaucoma in the other eye.

The signs of open-angle glaucoma are frequently subtle and develop gradually, making them simple to overlook. The patient may, nevertheless, have the following symptoms of closed-angle glaucoma:

an eye with pressure

hurting my eyes


fuzzy vision

encircling lights, rainbow-colored halo

lower vision

Vomiting and nauseous

eyes that are flaming.

Regular eye exams and early identification are essential since glaucoma damage is irreversible.



IOP reduction and halting further vision loss are the main goals of the current standard of care. Beta blockers, alpha agonists, topical anhydrase inhibitors, and parasympathomimetic medications are the first line of treatment for this condition. Medications may be given to you by your doctor as pills or ocular Careprost  drops. The drops are used to reduce ocular pressure and are more widely available. Some achieve this by improving the drainage angle fluid flow, while others do it by lowering the amount of aqueous fluid the eye produces.

Aqueous fluid from the eye can be drained via laser surgery, which is also used to treat glaucoma. People with open-angle glaucoma may benefit from trabeculoplasty, which improves the drainage angle’s performance. Iridotomy, which creates a tiny hole in the iris to aid fluid flow to the drainage angle, is a treatment option for persons with angle-closure glaucoma.

Another alternative for glaucoma patients is operating room surgery. The fundamental idea behind it is to establish a fresh drainage path for the aqueous humor to exit the eye. When a surgeon does a trabeculectomy, a very little sclera flap is made. A filtration bleb, commonly referred to as a bubble, is also formed in the conjunctiva (in the form of a pocket). It is concealed beneath the top eyelid, making it invisible. The flap will allow the fluid to exit the eye and flow into the bleb. The fluid in that pocket is absorbed by the tissue surrounding the eye, which lowers eye pressure.

The surgeon might insert a tiny drainage tube into the eye to channel the fluid into a collection reservoir (a collection region) that is situated below the conjunctiva. The nearby blood vessels subsequently take up the extra fluids.


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